Software Architecture: a Roadmap

Over the past  software architecture has received increasing attention as an important subfield of software engineering. During that time there has been considerable progress in developing the technological and methodological base for treating architectural design as an engineering discipline. However, much remains to be done to achieve that goal. Moreover, the changing face of technology raises
a number of new challenges for software architecture. This article examines some of the important trends of software architecture in research and practice, and speculates on the important emerging trends, challenges, and aspirations.

THE ROLES OF SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE

While there are numerous definitions of software architecture, at the core of all of them is the notion that the architecture of a system describes its gross structure. This structure illuminates the top level design decisions, includeing things such as how the system is composed of interacting parts, where are the main pathways of interaction, and what are the key properties of the parts. Additionally, an architectural description includes sufficient information to allow high-level analysis and critical appraisal. 

To elaborate, software architecture can play an important role in at least six aspects of software development.

1. Understanding: Software architecture simplifies our ability to comprehend large systems by presenting them at a level of abstraction at which a system’s high-level design can be easily understood . Moreover, at its best, architectural description exposes the high-level constraints on system design, as well as the rationale for making specific architectural choices.

2. Reuse: Architectural descriptions support reuse at multiple levels. Current work on reuse generally focuses on component libraries. Architectural design supports, in addition, both reuse of large components and also frameworks into which components can be
integrated. Existing work on domain-specific software architectures, reference frameworks, and architectural design patterns has already begun to provide evidence for this.

3. Construction: An architectural description provides a partial blueprint for development by indicating the major components and dependencies between them. For example, a layered view of an architecture typically documents abstraction boundaries between
parts of a system’s implementation, clearly identifying the major internal system interfaces, and constraining what parts of a system may rely on services provided by other parts.

4. Evolution: Software architecture can expose the dimensions along which a system is expected to evolve. By making explicit the “load-bearing walls” of a system, system maintainers can better understand the ramifications of changes, and thereby more accurately estimate costs of modifications. Moreover, architectural descriptions separate concerns about the functionality of a component from the ways in which that component is connected to (interacts with) other components, by clearly distinguishing between components and mechanisms that
allow them to interact. This separation permits one to more easily change connection mechanisms to handle evolving concerns about performance interoperability,prototyping, and reuse.

5. Analysis: Architectural descriptions provide new opportunities for analysis, including system consistency checking, conformance to constraints imposed by an architectural style, conformance to quality attributes , dependence analysis,and domain-specific analyses for architectures built in specific styles.

6. Management: Experience has shown that successful projects view achievement of a viable software architecture as a key milestone in an industrial software development process. Critical evaluation of an architecture typically leads to a much clearer understanding of requirements, implementation strategies, and potential risks.

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